Is green tea really better than coffee?

Is green tea really better than coffee?

Is green tea really better than coffee?

While most people drink at least one cup of coffee every day, many believe that green tea is a better health and nutritional option than coffee.

Is it true? What about caffeine? Antioxidants? Anti-inflammatory properties? What is the impact on blood pressure, and which one can lower glucose and insulin levels?

Dr. Brynna Connor was interviewed in the Lifestyle section of in an article entitled, “Is green tea really better than coffee? Doctors and nutritionists weigh in.”

Bloating – What Is It And What Does It Mean?

Bloating – What Is It And What Does It Mean?

Do you ever feel like your stomach is too full or swollen? You may be bloated.

Bloating is a common problem, even in people who are otherwise healthy. About 1 in 7 Americans experience bloating on a weekly basis. It’s not always easy to figure out what’s causing bloating. Continue reading to learn more about what causes bloating and what it means.

What Is Bloating?

If you’re bloated, you may feel like your stomach is too full or tight. It can happen when your gastrointestinal system (GI system or digestive system) is full of gas or liquid. Your stomach may also look swollen or distended.

When you’re bloated, you can experience many different symptoms, including:

  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Swollen stomach
  • Flatulence (farting)
  • Belching (burping)
  • Stomach cramps

What Does Bloating Mean? — 6 Possible Causes of Bloating

Bloating can be a symptom of many different conditions.

A 2023 study published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology found that women and people with certain GI diseases were more likely to experience bloating. There are many other conditions that can cause bloating. Six possible causes of bloating are discussed below.

1. You Have Gas

You can feel bloated when you have excess gas trapped in your digestive system. Common symptoms of gas include belching, bloating, and flatulence.

It’s normal to have symptoms of excess gas, especially after eating. Eating and drinking can cause you to swallow small amounts of air along with your food and drink. Certain activities may increase how much air you swallow, such as:

  • Chewing gum or sucking on hard candy
  • Drinking carbonated drinks
  • Eating or drinking too fast
  • Smoking
  • Wearing loose-fitting dentures

The type of food you eat can also cause excess gas. Carbohydrates (such as sugar, starch, and fiber) can cause gas when the bacteria in your intestines begin to break it down. You may notice that you have more gas when you eat more carbohydrates.

Other foods that can cause excess gas include:

  • Legumes (such as beans, lentils, and soybeans)
  • Bran
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Dairy products
  • Fruits
  • Sugar substitutes (such as sorbitol)
  • Carbonated drinks

2. You Have a Food Intolerance

food intolerance can occur if your digestive system has difficulty digesting (breaking down) certain foods.

A food intolerance is different from a food allergy, which is caused by your immune system. Food allergies have different symptoms than food intolerance, including rash, difficulty breathing, or swelling of your mouth and lips.

If you have a health condition that makes it difficult for you to break down certain foods, you may have increased gas and symptoms of bloating. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, and fructose intolerance. Other food chemicals that may cause symptoms of food intolerance include:

  • Histamine — found in wine and cheese
  • Caffeine — found in coffee, tea, and some soft drinks
  • Alcohol
  • Sulfites — found in beer and wine
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) — found in ripe fruit, cured meat, and some savory foods

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is the most common type of food intolerance. It’s estimated that about 68% of the world’s population has lactose intolerance.

Lactose is a carbohydrate (sugar) found in milk. It can be found in any product made from milk and some processed foods. You may be intolerant to lactose if your body doesn’t make enough of an enzyme (a type of protein) called lactase that helps you break down lactose.

If you have lactose intolerance, you may experience symptoms of bloating within a few minutes or hours after eating lactose.

Fructose Intolerance

If you have fructose intolerance, you have difficulty absorbing and digesting fructose. It’s estimated that about 40% of people in the Western hemisphere have trouble digesting fructose.

Fructose is a type of sugar commonly found in fruit. People with an intolerance can experience symptoms of bloating shortly after eating fructose. People with severe fructose intolerance can experience serious complications, such as kidney damage, liver damage, coma, and death.

Gluten Intolerance

If you feel bloated or sick after eating food with gluten, you may have a gluten intolerance. It’s estimated that about 6% of Americans have a gluten intolerance.

Gluten is a protein found in some grains, including wheat, rye, and barley. If you have a gluten intolerance, you can experience other symptoms in addition to bloating, such as:

  • Anxiety and depression
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Joint pain
  • Rash
  • Nausea and vomiting

3. You’re Constipated

You may feel bloated if you’re constipated. Constipation is defined as having fewer than 3 bowel movements (pooping) per week. However, everyone’s bowel habits are different, and you may feel constipated if you have more or fewer bowel movements than 3 per week.

Constipation happens when your colon (also known as your large intestine) absorbs too much water from your stool (poop). When this happens, your stool becomes harder and more difficult to pass. The buildup of stool in your colon can cause your abdomen to appear larger and cause abdominal pain.

Constipation is one of the most common digestive complaints in the United States (US). Some people are more likely to experience constipation, including:

  • Women
  • Pregnant women
  • Older adults
  • People who take some medications or supplements
  • People with gastrointestinal disease and other chronic medical conditions

You may also be more likely to become constipated if you:

  • Don’t eat enough fiber
  • Don’t drink enough water
  • Don’t get enough exercise
  • Have changes in your daily routine
  • Are stressed
  • Resist the urge to go poop when you feel it

There are ways to treat constipation when you have it.

4. You’re About to Start Your Menstrual Cycle

It’s common to feel bloated before and during your menstrual cycle (period). Three out of four women experience bloating around their period.

Bloating may occur around the time of your period because of certain female hormones. For example, estrogen can cause fluid retention — when your body holds on to water, causing swelling. If swelling occurs in your abdomen, it can make you feel bloated. Estrogen and progesterone can also interact with your digestive tract and cause increased gas in your intestines.

Another reason you may feel bloated before your period is that your uterus actually increases in volume just before your period starts.

5. You Take a Medication That Causes Bloating

Medications can cause bloating by causing gas in your digestive tract or causing constipation.

You may feel bloated if you take an antacid to treat heartburn. Fiber supplements can also cause increased gas. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that isn’t digested. Because of this, the bacteria in your intestines may produce more gas when you take a fiber supplement. If you take too much of a fiber supplement or don’t drink enough water, it could cause constipation, which can also make you feel bloated.

Medications that can cause constipation include:

  • Opioid pain medications — such as hydrocodone (Vicodin) or oxycodone (Oxycontin)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) — such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve)
  • Antidepressants — such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Prozac) and tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • Iron supplements — available in many forms over the counter (OTC)
  • Antihistamines — such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  • Seizure medications — such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and gabapentin (Neurontin)
  • Nausea medications — such as ondansetron (Zofran)

6. You Have a Chronic Medical Condition

Bloating is a possible symptom of several different chronic medical conditions.

Gastrointestinal Disease

People living with GI disease are more likely to experience bloating than the general population. People with GI disease have difficulty with digestion, which can cause symptoms that lead to bloating, such as excess gas and constipation.

GI diseases associated with bloating include:

Liver Disease

People with liver disease can feel and look bloated if they develop ascites.

Ascites is a condition where fluid builds up in the abdomen. The fluid builds up between two layers of tissue called the peritoneum that lines the organs in the abdomen.

While liver disease is the most common cause of ascites, it can also be caused by heart failure, kidney failure, an infection, or cancer.


Certain cancers can make you feel bloated if they affect the organs in your abdomen. Examples of cancers that may cause bloating include:

  • Ovarian cancer
  • Uterine cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Stomach cancer

If you’re experiencing symptoms of bloating due to cancer, you will likely have other symptoms, such as fatigue or unexpected weight loss.

For gynecological cancers, like ovarian and uterine cancer, you may experience unusual vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain. Colon cancer can also cause blood in your stool. If you have stomach cancer, you may experience difficulty swallowing.

Talk to your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. Additionally, regular cancer screening can help you detect some cancers before symptoms occur. Talk to your doctor about which screening tests are appropriate for you.

When Should You See Your Doctor for Bloating?

Bloating is a common problem, so it can be hard to know when you should see your doctor about this symptom. Almost 60% of people who experience bloating don’t seek medical advice. However, bloating can be a symptom of another, more serious medical condition.

Contact your doctor if you experience bloating that:

  • Lasts longer than one week
  • Keeps getting worse
  • Is painful
  • Comes with other symptoms like vomiting, fever, or blood in your stool

How Is Bloating Diagnosed?

If you experience persistent bloating, your doctor may ask you questions about your history, perform a physical exam, and order different medical tests to find the cause of your bloating.

During a physical exam, your doctor will feel the organs of your abdomen to look for anything unusual. Based on your symptoms, your doctor may order additional tests for possible causes of bloating, such as blood tests, stool tests, and tests for food intolerances.

Your doctor may want to examine the inside of your GI tract. Imaging tests such as an ultrasound or X-ray can create a picture of the inside of your body. Your doctor can also insert a small flexible tube with a lighted camera into your GI tract. When it’s inserted through your mouth into your stomach, it’s called a gastroscopy. When it’s inserted into your colon through your anus, it’s called a colonoscopy. These tests can be used to help diagnose GI diseases and some types of cancer.

How Can You Manage Bloating?

The treatment for bloating depends on what’s causing your bloating symptoms. If you experience persistent bloating, you should talk to your doctor to find out the cause. There are some ways you can treat bloating at home, including:

  • Simethicone (Gas-X) — this medication helps relieve bloating by popping gas bubbles in your GI tract and is available OTC by itself or in combination with antacids
  • Antacids — antacids help decrease stomach acid and help you pass gas more easily and are available OTC
  • Probiotics — good bacteria in probiotics can help restore balance to your gut bacteria and reduce gas
  • Herbal tea — herbal teas such as peppermint, chamomile, or turmeric can help aid digestion
  • Peppermint oil — peppermint oil can relax your stomach muscles to help pass gas

Food-Related Bloating

If you’re experiencing food-related bloating, making changes to your diet may help your symptoms.

It can help to cut back on foods that cause excess gas.

If you have a lactose intolerance and can’t avoid dairy products, taking a lactase supplement may help decrease your symptoms. Your doctor and a registered dietitian can help you choose the best diet based on your symptoms and intolerances.

Constipation-Related Bloating

If your bloating is related to constipation, taking steps to prevent constipation may improve your symptoms. Some tips for reducing constipation include:

  • Increase the amount of fiber you eat
  • Stay physically active
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Don’t ignore the urge to poop

Talk to your doctor about what’s causing constipation and bloating to find the best treatment for you.

Chronic Disease-Related Bloating

If you have a chronic disease that causes bloating, appropriate treatment for that disease should help improve your symptoms. Talk to your doctor about all of the symptoms that bother you and discuss the best treatment option for you.

Additionally, regular follow-up with your doctor can help discover some problems before they happen.

Articles authored by Dr. Connor are intended to facilitate awareness about health and wellness matters generally and are not a substitute for professional medical attention or advice from your own healthcare practitioner, which is dependent on your detailed personal medical condition and history. You should always speak with your own qualified healthcare practitioner about any information in any articles you may read here before choosing to act or not act upon such information. Read Dr. Connor’s original version of this article posted on

What Is a Low-Residue Diet?

What Is a Low-Residue Diet?

Man with groceries
A low-residue dietA low-fiber/low-residue diet is a diet with the end goal of having fewer and smaller bowel movements each day and it may help calm symptoms of gastrointestinal illnesses or help prepare the body for certain medical procedures. People who follow a low-residue diet need to eat low-fiber foods that are easy to digest. If your physician tells you to go on a low-residue diet, ask for guidelines around what to eat and how long to stay on the diet.

What Is Food Residue?

The digestive system breaks down and uses most parts of the food we eat. However, there are some substances that can’t be digested. Anything that can’t be broken down and is left over in the large intestine after a meal is digested is called “residue.”

Residue is mostly made up of fiber. Dietary fiber is a substance made by plants. It is primarily present in plant-based foods like grains and produce. The body can’t break down fiber.

Most people need to eat a lot of fiber in order to maintain good health. Eating more fiber reduces a person’s risk of chronic disorders like diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends a daily fiber intake of 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. However, a person may occasionally need to eat smaller amounts of fiber for health reasons.

The Low-Residue Diet

The goal of a low-residue diet is to eat foods that can be easily broken down by the body and will lead to less residue left over in the digestive system. This diet typically causes people to have smaller, less frequent bowel movements.

A low-residue diet is very similar to a low-fiber diet, but they may not be exactly the same. Low-residue diets do focus on low-fiber foods, but they may also eliminate other types of foods as well. For example, dairy products do not contain much fiber, but still lead to a lot of residue, so these foods may also be avoided. This is important to note if you are following a low-residue diet for the purposes of bowel preparation, dietary or other health reasons.

When Do You Need To Use a Low-Residue Diet?

holding belly
There are two main reasons why physicians recommend low-residue diets. The first is for diagnostic purposes, to prepare the digestive system before undergoing a test or surgery. The other is as a treatment for different digestive illnesses. Don’t begin a low-residue diet unless your healthcare provider tells you that you should. Low-residue diets typically don’t provide enough nutrients to keep you healthy long-term, so follow your physician’s instructions regarding when to begin and end this eating plan. Additionally, you may want to ask your physician if it’s a good idea to take any vitamins or supplements while you are following the low-residue diet.

The Low-Residue Diet as Bowel Preparation

Some people need to follow a low-residue diet before going through medical procedures. One such procedure is a colonoscopy. During this test, a physician uses a thin tube with a camera on the end to look inside the large intestine. Colonoscopies are used to diagnose certain illnesses and digestive problems. Colonoscopies are also an important part of screening for colon cancer. People with an average risk of developing this cancer should begin getting screened at the age of 45. Before a colonoscopy, a person needs to clean out their bowel. Traditionally, many physicians recommended a bowel prep that involved taking laxatives and consuming only clear liquids for one or more days before the procedure. However, in recent years many researchers have conducted clinical trials looking at other bowel prep methods. Several studies have found that people who ate a low-residue diet before undergoing procedures had equal or better colon cleansing compared to people who followed a clear liquid diet. Additionally, people following a low-residue diet preferred this method and were more likely to stick to the instructions. Physicians may also recommend following a low-residue diet before other intestinal tests. By eliminating leftover residue from the large intestine, this diet can help the physicians see the intestine more clearly and more accurately identify any problems.

Using the Low-Residue Diet as Treatment

Eating low-residue foods may help manage symptoms of conditions that affect the digestive system. Physicians may recommend following this eating plan to people who are dealing with:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Diverticulitis
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • A bowel obstruction (a condition in which digested food is blocking the intestines)
  • Other conditions, such as infection or cancer of the digestive system
  • Surgery of the intestines

There are two different disorders that fall under the umbrella of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In both of these conditions, there is ongoing inflammation in the small or large intestine. Over time, this inflammation causes damage and leads to symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, blood in the stool, weight loss, and tiredness. However, these symptoms don’t occur all of the time. They occur or get worse during disease “flares.” Low-residue diets may help reduce the amount of stool, allowing the intestines rest and leading to fewer IBD symptoms during these flares. Diverticulitis is a condition in which small bulges or pouches form in the intestines, and then — these outpouchings — become inflamed. One study has found that eating foods that are easier on the digestive system, including low-fiber foods, may help reduce symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder without a clear cause that leads to several digestive symptoms, including bloating, cramping, constipation, and diarrhea. In the past, most physicians have recommended that people with IBS try eating more fiber. Unfortunately, this can sometimes make symptoms more severe. Now, researchers are finding that a low-fiber diet can lessen symptoms or make them disappear altogether. A low-residue or low-fiber diet may also be necessary before surgery — either surgery on the intestines or gynecological surgery. Following a low-residue diet before these surgeries can help create more room in the abdomen and reduce risk of infection. Additionally, switching to a low-residue diet after intestinal surgery can help people’s intestines begin working again more quickly, leading to a shorter amount of time spent in the hospital.

How Does a Low-Residue Diet Work?

It is hard to measure exactly how much residue each type of food produces. Additionally, each person’s body may respond to foods differently. Researchers have not always been able to come up with a clear definition for which foods qualify as “low-residue.” For this reason, some physicians now recommend that people who need to follow a low-residue diet simply try to follow a low-fiber diet. When it comes to a low-fiber diet, physicians often suggest eating 10 grams of fiber or less per day. If your physician wants you to follow a low-residue diet, they may also tell you to avoid other foods that may be hard to digest or cause digestive symptoms. Learning about which foods naturally contain fiber can help. Check the nutrition facts label on your foods. This will tell you how much of that food makes up one serving and how much fiber is in each serving. If a food item like a fruit or vegetable doesn’t come with a label, you can look up the amount of fiber per serving online. Keep track of how much fiber you’re eating throughout the day, and try not to eat more than 10 grams, or follow your physician’s instructions for how much fiber you should be eating. Your physician will tell you how long to remain on a low-residue diet. If you just need to go through bowel prep for an upcoming procedure, you may only need to follow the diet for one or a couple of days. If you are trying to use a low-residue diet to help with disease symptoms, your physician may advise staying on the diet for several weeks or months. People who need to follow a low-residue diet long-term may want to consult with a Registered Dietician (RD) or Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS). These health professionals can help ensure that you are eating balanced meals and getting good nutrition while limiting the foods that you eat.

What Foods Can I Eat on a Low-Residue Diet?

During a low-residue diet, you’ll want to focus on low-fiber foods. This list of foods provides a good starting point for what you may be able to eat. However, each person digests food differently, so your physician may tell you to avoid foods that are on this list. Always follow your physician’s recommendations. Usually, the foods on this list have low levels of fiber. However, it is still important to check the nutrition facts label for everything that you eat. Some naturally low-fiber foods have extra fiber added in. When it comes to grains, white or refined products have less fiber than whole-wheat and whole-grain products. Stick to:

  • White bread
  • White pasta
  • White rice
  • Non-whole-wheat crackers
  • Cereal without added fiber.

Most cooked, tenderized meats are okay to have on a low-residue diet. You can also have poultry and eggs. For plant-based options, you can try tofu and smooth peanut butter. Most fruits and vegetables should not be eaten raw. Cooking produce, removing skins and seeds, and avoiding pulp helps you cut back on fiber and residue. Vegetables that can be eaten raw include small amounts of zucchini, cucumbers, or lettuce. Make sure to peel and remove seeds first. You can also have cooked, canned, or juiced versions of the following vegetables:

  • Spinach
  • Green beans and wax beans
  • Asparagus
  • Eggplant
  • Squash and pumpkin
  • Potatoes with the skins removed
  • Carrots
  • Beets

When it comes to fruits, juices are always a good option — but make sure to buy pulp-free! Sauces and purees like applesauce are also good bets. Raw melon, cantaloupe, bananas, apricots, nectarines, peaches, and plums are usually okay to have on a low-residue diet. If you’re eating raw fruit, make sure it’s very ripe. You can also have canned fruits as long as they don’t come in heavy syrup. Make sure to drink plenty of fluids while on a low-residue diet. This can help prevent constipation, which is common when eating low-fiber foods.

What Foods Should I Avoid on a Low-Residue Diet?

Avoid whole-grain and whole-wheat foods, which contain a lot of fiber. Additionally, stay away from:

  • Brown rice and wild rice
  • Popcorn
  • Oats and oatmeal
  • Granola
  • Wheat germ
  • Bran
  • Grains like barley, quinoa, and bulgur

When it comes to meats, stay away from processed meats like hot dogs and sausage, and say no to any deli meats. You should also avoid nuts and crunchy peanut butter, beans, and tempeh, as these are all high-fiber foods. Avoid any vegetables that aren’t on the above lists. Additionally, stay away from any vegetables that haven’t been de-seeded or peeled. When it comes to fruit, you should avoid all dried fruits, as these typically contain a lot of fiber. You should also choose not to eat any pineapple, berries, figs, and prunes. Ask your physician whether it is okay to eat dairy products. Some low-residue diet recommendations include limiting or avoiding milk, yogurt, and cheese. These products contain low amounts of fiber but may worsen digestive symptoms and increase the amount of stool that you produce.

How To Reintroduce High-Fiber Foods

You’ve completed the low-residue diet, and your physician says that you no longer need to follow this eating plan. Now what?

If you have only been eating low-fiber foods for a day or two, it may be fine to eat a normal amount of fiber again the next day. Ask your physician for recommendations.

If you have been following a low-residue diet for a longer time period, don’t go back to your usual diet immediately. It will be difficult for your digestive system to handle. Instead, increase the amount of fiber you eat gradually over time. Try eating a small amount of a high-fiber food for a couple of days in a row. If you don’t experience any symptoms, add this food back into your diet.

Some experts recommend adding 5 more grams of fiber to your diet each week. For example, if you have been eating 10 grams of fiber each day, try eating 15 grams of fiber per day the following week, and 20 grams per day the week after that. If you begin to experience digestive symptoms like bloating, cramping, or diarrhea, try decreasing your fiber intake again until the symptoms resolve.


A low-residue diet is similar to a low-fiber diet. In some cases, they may be the same. These diets may be a necessary tool when preparing for certain medical procedures. They can also be a helpful way of managing symptoms for people with digestive diseases. However, people should not usually stay on low-residue diets for long time periods, because fiber helps keep you healthy and prevent chronic illnesses. Follow your physician’s instructions when it comes to beginning and ending a low-residue diet, and heed their recommendations about what to eat and avoid. If you think this is a diet that could benefit you, please discuss with Dr. Connor first by making an appointment.

Superfoods Part 6: Foods That Promote Gut Health

Superfoods Part 6: Foods That Promote Gut Health

woman with bag of groceries
This is the final installment of my first six-part series on superfoods, this time focussing on foods that promote gut health. I welcome you to read the other articles in the series, “What Is a Superfood and What Is So Super About Them?”, “Supercharge Your Diet with Superfoods for Weight Loss”, “Critical Superfoods for a Healthy Heart”, “Essential Superfoods for Diabetics and Pre-Diabetics”, and “Ten Essential Superfoods for Radiant Skin”.

The foods you feed your body play a big role in how well your body works and how healthy and well you feel. Some foods offer very little nutritional value, as you might have heard of “empty calories” while others contain high levels of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that boost health and help you tremendously . Eating these superfoods can play an important role in keeping your gut functioning at its best.

Your Digestive System

Your digestive system, also called your gastrointestinal system, or your gut, is important for turning food into fuel and helps keep you healthy. When you eat, food travels from your mouth, through your esophagus, to your stomach. From the stomach, food passes through your small intestine, large intestine or colon, and rectum, and passes out of your body through the anus when you go to the bathroom. Together, these organs form a tube stretching through your body that is about 30 feet long! Other organs, such as the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas also help with digestion by producing enzymes that break down food.

The primary role of the digestive system is breaking down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into smaller pieces that the body’s cells can more easily absorb. However, the gut also performs several other jobs as well:

  • Absorbing vitamins and minerals
  • Soaking up water
  • Eliminating waste
  • Helping the immune system get rid of harmful germs
  • Communicating with the brain to control digestion, appetite, and emotions

Gut Bacteria

Another very important part of the digestive system is bacteria. Some bacteria, such as E. coli or Salmonella, can make you sick if you eat foods that are contaminated with them. However, other “good bacteria” live in our intestines and are very important for keeping us healthy. Their roles include:

  • Helping the body digest food
  • Crowding out more harmful bacteria
  • Keeping harmful substances from getting into the bloodstream
  • Helping form a barrier on the cells of the intestine
  • Boosting the immune system
  • Creating new vitamins that our bodies can use
  • Helping control appetite and how our body uses fat
  • Communicating with the brain in order to control moods and emotions
  • Helping the body fix damaged cells

The gut bacteria may also play a role in all sorts of different diseases, including cancer and asthma. Adopting habits that help gut bacteria thrive can help our bodies work properly and make us feel healthy.

Keeping Your Gut Healthy

Many different lifestyle habits, including the foods we regularly eat, have a big impact on how our digestive systems and gut bacteria function. The choices we make can help make our health better or worse. Certain eating habits can optimize our guts. Eating smaller meals can make it easier for our bodies to digest foods. Eating more slowly and chewing food for longer amounts of time before swallowing can also break down food more efficiently and helps us swallow less air. Additionally, creating an eating schedule and having meals at the same times each day may help our guts work better. Other measures to keep your gut working at its best include:

  • Exercising: Getting a lot of physical activity helps the muscles in the digestive system move properly, encourages the growth of more healthy bacteria, and causes lower levels of inflammation in the gut.
  • Sleep: When you get regular sleep on a consistent schedule, your gut gets time to rest and reset. Lack of sleep can cause digestive system inflammation. People who don’t get good quality sleep are also more likely to have gastrointestinal diseases.
  • Lowering stress: High stress levels can make the cells in the intestines more “leaky,” leading more harmful substances to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Some people may often get constipation, diarrhea, or other symptoms of gut diseases during times of stress, because the digestive system isn’t working at its best. See my article, “How Stress Affects the Gut and What You Can Do About It” for more.

One of the biggest factors in how your digestive system and your gut bacteria function is the foods that you eat. Proper nutrition keeps you at your healthiest. This is where superfoods come in. Eating foods that are easily broken down by your gut, that keep the cells of your digestive system working properly, and that keep your gut bacteria healthy can help you get the most nutrition out of your food and prevent disease.

Digestive Disorders

When the organs of the digestive system stop working properly, several different diseases and conditions can occur. A couple of the most common are:

All of these conditions may have more specific treatments that help with specific symptoms. However, the food you eat also plays a big role in when and how often these symptoms come up. Eating some hard-to-digest or less nutritious foods can lead to frequent digestive issues. On the other hand, regularly eating nutrient-packed superfoods helps your gut work the way it’s supposed to.


Probiotic Food picture
You now know that healthy bacteria is one of the keys to a healthy gut. But where do these “good germs” come from? While babies pick up their first gut bacteria during or immediately after birth, adults can introduce more healthy bacteria into their systems using probiotics. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that boost health. Eating foods that contain probiotics helps maintain a good balance of healthy bacteria in your system. These foods have been linked to a lower risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. Probiotics may also help treat IBS symptoms, such as diarrhea.

What Foods Have Probiotics?

You can buy probiotics in supplement form, or you can get them from fermented superfoods. These include:

  • Cultured dairy products such as yogurt and kefir
  • Sourdough bread
  • Fermented cabbage like kimchi and sauerkraut (choose unpasteurized products in order to get probiotics)
  • Fermented soybean products like tempeh, miso, and natto
  • Kombucha (fermented tea)

Yogurt is one of the most widely available fermented superfoods. It is jam-packed with healthy bacteria. Choose yogurt brands that are labeled as having “live active cultures”. These cultures may include LactobacillusL. acidophilusL. bulgaricus, or S. thermophilus. Yogurt makes for a great breakfast or afternoon snack. It can also be used in a sauce or a dip as a substitute for mayonnaise or sour cream. In addition to eating probiotic foods, you can also eat prebiotic foods to support gut health. While probiotics contain actual live bacteria, prebiotic foods help feed those bacteria. They can also help the body absorb nutrients such as calcium, decrease the risk of allergies, and improve the immune system. Some items that help good bacteria grow are oats, barley, cereals, dairy products, asparagus, artichokes, onions, garlic, bananas, beans, and honey.


healthy produce and fish
Fiber is material that can’t be digested by the body. While it might seem odd to eat something that your body can’t absorb, fiber serves other important purposes. Fiber allows the digestive system to soak up more nutrients, feeds gut bacteria, and helps prevent constipation. Fiber has other benefits, too – it can help the body control cholesterol and blood sugar levels and reduce a person’s risk of conditions like diabetes and heart disease. There are two types of fiber, soluble and insoluble, and both are important for good health. Foods that come from plants that have a lot of fiber can also help build up a layer of mucus in the intestines. This is a good thing – it’s where the healthy bacteria live and work to digest food. Fibrous foods help build up this layer, while foods that are processed or have a lot of sugar wear down this layer. There is one caveat to eating a lot of fiber. Many high-fiber superfoods fall into a category called FODMAPs. FODMAPs are molecules found in certain fruits (apples, blackberries, cherries, dates, pears), certain vegetables (artichokes, asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, garlic, mushrooms, onion, peas), dairy products, beans, wheat, and some types of sweeteners (honey, high fructose corn syrup, sorbitol). FODMAPs are perfectly fine for most people to eat. However, some people, such as those with IBS, may be more sensitive to these foods and should eat them in lower amounts. If you want to avoid these foods, try to find other ways to get a lot of fiber into your diet.

Fiber-Filled Foods

Whole grains have large quantities of both soluble and insoluble fiber, in addition to B vitamins, phytonutrients, and iron. Whole grains use the entire kernel of the grain. Refined grains are more processed, which removes a lot of the fiber as well as vitamins and minerals. To get more whole grains into your diet, substitute them for refined grains – for example, use brown rice instead of white rice, or wheat bread or pasta instead of the regular variety. Or try reaching for oatmeal for breakfast, or popcorn for a snack. You can also try cooking up some new grains as a side dish, such as quinoa, bulgur, or wheat berries. Nuts, seeds, and legumes also have high levels of fiber. Legumes include foods like beans, lentils, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, and are often thought of as superfoods because of all the health benefits they provide. Many legumes can be easily incorporated into side dishes. Nuts and seeds also make for great salad toppers, or a filling snack in between meals. Fresh produce also contains a lot of fiber. Some high-fiber fruit and vegetable superfoods include:

  • Berries: In addition to fiber, berries often have other health-boosting nutrients like vitamin C and antioxidants. They can be easily added to any meal. Try topping yogurt, cereal, or oatmeal with blueberries or strawberries. Or blend frozen berries with other superfoods like yogurt, almond milk, or coconut water to make an extra nutritious smoothie. Add them to other meals by throwing them on top of salads or into desserts.
  • Leafy greens: Superfoods like spinach, kale, and collard greens have a lot of vitamins A, C, E, and K, B vitamins, calcium, iron, and magnesium. Make up a salad with some greens, sauté them in olive oil, or toss some in a soup for an easy superfood boost.
  • Cruciferous vegetables: Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and bok choy are a part of the cruciferous vegetable family. Some leafy greens like kale also fall into this category. Cruciferous vegetables contain immune-boosting phytochemicals as well as vitamins like folate and vitamin K. Try steaming, roasting, or stir-frying cruciferous vegetables as a side dish.


Many plant-based superfoods contain polyphenols, antioxidants that repair damage and heal cells. When we eat these molecules, the cells of our intestines can’t absorb them very well, so they start piling up in the large intestine, where our gut bacteria use them as food and break them down so that our bodies can benefit from them. Polyphenols can help the digestive system in several ways. They can:

  • Help keep bad bacteria from growing
  • Encourage good bacteria to grow
  • Help bacteria form a stronger barrier in order to protect the intestines from damage
  • Boost metabolism and help fight diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure
  • Reduce inflammation
  • Improve the immune system
  • Protect against colon cancer

Coffee and tea both contain different types of polyphenols. Many fruits also contain these molecules, especially blueberries, kiwis, apples, and reddish-colored fruits like strawberries, raspberries, cherries, and blackberries. Other foods with polyphenols are onions, soy, red wine, and dark chocolate.


model of a body
The health of your gut plays a role in the health of other systems of the body. A digestive system that works well can help fight off germs and prevent diseases. One great way to stay healthy is to eat a variety of different superfoods, including probiotics and foods that contain fiber and polyphenols. Making these foods part of your regular meals can help treat digestive disorders such as IBS and prevent other chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and even cancer.

If you would like to discuss any digestive issues you may be experiencing with Dr. Connor, please make an appointment.

What Is Sensitive Gut and Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

What Is Sensitive Gut and Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

When you eat food, it travels a long distance through your body. It passes through your mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Each of these organs plays a different role in breaking down food into the energy and nutrients that your body uses in order to function. This process is known as digestion. Other organs such as the gallbladder and pancreas also help digestion by producing chemicals that break down food.

Unfortunately, any of these organs can stop working optimally, which may lead to pain or discomfort. Problems with organs in the digestive system are one of the main reasons people visit their doctor and I see patients with these conditions almost daily. Two very common conditions related to digestive troubles are known as sensitive gut and irritable bowel syndrome. The causes of these conditions are often unclear, but science is increasingly uncovering new ways to help relieve symptoms.

Digestive Troubles

Problems with the digestive system can be a big deal. Stomach or intestinal issues can disrupt a person’s sleep, and they can interfere with a person’s normal daily routine. For example, some people have unpredictable symptoms, and need to plan their day around having access to a bathroom. Additionally, digestive troubles can cause a person to miss work, school, or social events. There are many different disorders and conditions that can result in these sorts of problems.

Sensitive Gut

The term “sensitive gut” isn’t an official medical diagnosis. It’s a general name that can be used when someone frequently gets an upset stomach or experiences other digestive issues. While everyone experiences stomach or intestinal problems occasionally, some people’s digestive systems are more sensitive to certain foods or habits, leading to pain, discomfort, or other symptoms on a regular basis.

Digestive symptoms can include many things, such as:

  • Stomach cramping
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion or upset stomach
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling uncomfortably full during or after a meal
  • Bloating
  • A burning feeling in the chest or stomach
  • Excess gas
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation

People with a sensitive gut experience one or more of these symptoms on a regular basis. If you have some of these issues, it may be helpful to spend some time trying to figure out if certain foods or actions make these symptoms worse, as we’ll explore further below.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

This disorder, also known as IBS, is one example of a “functional gastrointestinal disorder.” When people have disorders in this category, they experience stomach or intestinal symptoms, but their digestive systems look normal on tests like x-rays or endoscopies. Doctors think that the brain plays a role in these disorders. However, this is not to say that your stomach troubles are all in your head – there is a very real, physical connection between your mind and your gut.

Throughout your digestive system, there are millions of nerve cells, called neurons. The neurons communicate with each other and with the brain in order to control how your digestive system works. The brain sends signals to the digestive system to help it function correctly, and the digestive system in turn sends signals back to the brain so that the brain can control things like appetite, mood, and sleep. There is thought to be a disruption in this process in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The neurons connected to the intestines may be too sensitive, the intestines or stomach may not move properly, or the brain’s ability to control digestion may not be working right.

A recent study found that as many as 40% of people around the world may have some type of functional gastrointestinal disorder. IBS is one of the most common conditions in this category. People with IBS have several of the digestive symptoms listed above, which persist over a long period of time. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits. There are a couple of different types of IBS. People with IBS-C tend to have constipation and hard, lumpy stool. Those with IBS-D frequently have diarrhea and loose, watery stool. Some people have problems with both constipation and diarrhea. Other symptoms like bloating and whitish mucus in the stool are also typical.

Other Digestive Disorders

Some other diseases or conditions may cause some of the same symptoms as sensitive gut and IBS. For example:

  • Gallstones are clumps of hardened material that form in your gallbladder and can cause pain and cramping.
  • Gastritis is inflammation of the stomach lining that may be caused by an infection and can lead to pain and nausea.
  • Infections of the stomach or intestines can occur when certain types of bacteria become overgrown.
  • Ulcers are sores that develop in the stomach that can be caused by infection or overuse of certain pain medications.
  • Pancreatitis occurs when your pancreas becomes inflamed and causes abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Taking medications like antibiotics, aspirin, or ibuprofen may sometimes have side effects that mimic indigestion.

In many cases, discomfort and irregular bowel habits aren’t a severe health problem. However, if your symptoms are frequent or last longer than a couple of weeks, talk to your healthcare provider to check whether there is something more serious going on. Warning signs of a more serious condition include blood in your vomit or stool, difficulty swallowing, weight loss, severe abdominal pain, shortness of breath, yellow-tinged eyes or skin, or pain in your chest, neck, or arm. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact a doctor right away.

Potential Causes and Treatments

Knowing how to make your digestive issues better first starts with better understanding the root of the problem. It can be difficult to determine the exact culprit, and you may have to try several strategies before pinpointing problem foods or behaviors.

Change Your Eating Habits

Eating your meals in a different way may help your body more easily digest your food. Strategies like the following may help:

  • Eat multiple small meals rather than a couple of large ones
  • Chew slowly
  • Make sure your food is properly chewed before swallowing
  • Drink liquids slowly
  • Don’t eat within two hours of going to sleep

Avoid Harder-to-Digest Foods

Certain types of food or drink can make indigestion, stomach pain, and intestinal symptoms worse. Try avoiding common problem foods for a few weeks to see if your symptoms improve. Things to stay away from include:

  • Acidic foods like tomatoes and oranges
  • Spicy foods
  • Greasy or fried foods
  • Foods with high levels of fat
  • Caffeinated drinks such as coffee and tea
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonated drinks such as soda and seltzer water

Eating a bland diet for a couple of weeks or months may help digestive problems go away. Bland foods are easier for your stomach and intestines to digest, and include things like cooked and canned vegetables, eggs, soup, pudding, breads and crackers made with white flour, and baked poultry and fish. Ask your healthcare provider for recommendations regarding when you can start adding other foods back into your diet.

Food Intolerances

Some people have food allergies, which can cause serious reactions involving rashes and breathing difficulties. On the other hand, food intolerances are typically less severe and lead to digestive symptoms. Some of the most common food intolerances involve gluten, dairy, and molecules called FODMAPs.

Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. People who have gluten intolerance, also known as gluten sensitivity, experience digestive symptoms when they eat products that contain these grains. Gluten intolerance may also lead to symptoms like tiredness or muscle cramps. A related disorder is celiac disease, a more severe condition in which eating gluten leads to damage to the small intestine.

People who have lactose intolerance have symptoms like gas and diarrhea when they eat dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter. All of these milk products contain a type of sugar called lactose. Over a third of people in the United States may have trouble digesting and absorbing lactose. People who have lactose intolerance may be able to get rid of their digestive symptoms by limiting or completely avoiding consuming milk and dairy products.

Another common source of digestive distress is FODMAPs. These molecules are a type of carbohydrate that may be more difficult for the body to digest, especially for people with a sensitive gut. FODMAPs are found in:

  • Fruits like apples, blackberries, cherries, pears, and watermelon
  • Vegetables like artichokes, asparagus, cabbage, garlic, and onions
  • Beans and lentils
  • Milk-based foods like cheese, yogurt, and ice cream
  • Wheat and wheat-containing foods like bread and pasta
  • Foods and drinks containing artificial sweeteners

If you think you have a food intolerance, you can try avoiding that food for several weeks to see if your symptoms improve. A low FODMAP diet might work for you. If you aren’t sure which foods you may be intolerant to, you can try an elimination diet in which you avoid all potential problem foods for several weeks and then gradually add them back into your regular diet. Adding foods back one at a time can help you determine which foods are likely to trigger your symptoms. Talk to your healthcare provider or a registered dietician for further guidance in setting up an elimination diet that meets your needs.


Because disorders like IBS involve communication between the brain and the gut, stress and anxiety can often cause these disorders or make them worse. People with IBS are also more likely to have anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders.

Stress can be particularly tricky to address for people with a sensitive gut or IBS. Digestive problems are often themselves a main source of stress. Worrying about rushing to a bathroom or losing sleep because of abdominal troubles can make people feel more stressed, and this extra stress may in turn make their digestive problems worse. It can be a vicious cycle. However, learning how to better reduce stress can help make IBS symptoms better.

Certain mental health treatments have been shown to help with IBS. Cognitive behavioral therapy can help people change their thoughts and behaviors and teach people how to better manage stress and anxiety. Learning deep breathing or relaxation skills can also help people with IBS. Finally, gut-directed hypnotherapy, in which a person is guided into a hypnotic state, can help restore better communication between the brain and the gut and can provide long-term relief from IBS symptoms. Building other healthy habits into a daily routine, such as getting more sleep and exercising more, can also help treat IBS.


We all have lots of different types of healthy bacteria in our intestines that help us digest food. Some people with IBS have too many bacteria, or have high numbers of harmful bacteria. Giving your body more of the “good” types of bacteria may help.

Bacteria and other microorganisms that are good for you are known as probiotics. Yogurt is one popular source of helpful bacteria. People can also get probiotics from unpasteurized fermented foods like sauerkraut, miso soup, kefir, kimchi, pickles, and komboucha. Additionally, probiotic supplements are available over-the-counter in the form of capsules or gummies. Several studies have found that taking probiotics can reduce IBS symptoms.


Different herbs have long been used as traditional treatments to help with digestive problems. For example, peppermint oil is known to help with IBS symptoms, especially when taken in the form of a coated capsule. Clinical trials have found that other herbal supplements can also be effective at reducing pain and symptoms in IBS patients, including bitter candytuft, chamomile, caraway, licorice root, and lemon balm.

Herbal and other non-prescriptions supplements can be helpful in treatment but they can also have interactions with other supplements and medications so please don’t start taking any supplements without a consultation with your doctor to ensure they are appropriate for you.


If changes in diet or lifestyle don’t help reduce IBS symptoms, doctors may prescribe medication. Different medicines can be used to treat diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.


If you feel like you are having a lot of problems with an upset stomach, pain, or irregular bowel habits, the first step is talking to your doctor, who can help you make sure there’s nothing serious going on. Changing your diet to avoid irritating foods and include more easily digestible foods is another helpful step. Many people suffer from digestive problems, but that doesn’t mean that there’s nothing you can do to help ease your symptoms.

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